Guar Gum and their Derivatives Research Profile
BRIEF REGARDING TWO DAYS WORKSHOP ON “GUAR PRODUCTION, VALUE ADDITION & EXPORT” ORGANIZED BY AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH STATION, BAHA
April 12, 2011 at 5:36pm
BRIEF REGARDING TWO DAYS WORKSHOP ON “GUAR PRODUCTION, VALUE ADDITION & EXPORT” ORGANIZED BY AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH STATION, BAHAWALPUR
Guar crop is being grown on poor sandy/marginal land, where no other crop can be grown successfully. It earned 56 million US $ during 2009-2010. This opened a door for the growers and extension workers to realize the importance of guar production, value addition and its export for country and farmer’s economy and role which it can play in foreign exchange earning.
While searching the information on guar on internet, I came across an article (Annexure-I). Which was sent to SAMA TV by Mr. Muhammad Aamir Naeem, Chief Executive Officer, Anabia Gum & Chemicals, Karachi who had shown his deep concern over the negligence of guar research, production, processing and export.
I contacted him on his e-mail and told that guar section is conducing research on guar and requested him to share the information on guar with me and offered him to work in collaboration with each other for the promotion of guar and its value addition for the betterment of the farming community and country’s economy.
Inspiration of Mr. Muhammad Aamir Naeem towards collaborative efforts for promotion of guar production and value addition resulted in organizing this workshop at Agricultural Research Station, Bahawalpur after long long telephonic and e-mail discussion. This workshop provided a floor where guar growers, extension agents, researchers, educationists, guar industrialists and media personnel’s gathered under one roof and got awareness of the importance of the guar crop, exchanged their ideas, shared their experiences and developed a road map. Mr. Muhammad Aamir Naeem also became Resource Person for the workshop. The information shared by Mr. Muhammad Aamir Naeem before workshop was astonishing for me. He told that the guar gum extracted from the endosperm of guar seed was being used in each and every industry throughout the world. Pakistan and India are the main producers and exporters of guar and guar products to whole of the world. India and Pakistan produce 70% and 25% of total world production respectively. Rest of 5% is being produced by 13 countries of the world including USA, Australia & Africa. During 2009-10, the export of guar gum was of 56 million US Dollars from Pakistan to 54 countries of the world.
Director, Fodder Research Institute, Sargodha appreciated my proposal for this workshop and also got permission from Director General Agriculture (Research), Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to organize two days workshop on “Guar Production, Value Addition and Export” during February, 2011. The Director, Fodder Research Institute, Sargodha not only got permission but also provided Rs.25000/- for this workshop which proved 1st rain drop. He also helped for arranging funds which has resulted my dream to this successful event.
The sponsors from private sector included Kissan Welfre Association, Bahawalpur, WWF Pakistan, Engro Fertilizer Ltd, Ali Akbar Group of Pakistan, Allah Din Group of Companies & Bayer Crop Sciences in addition to FRI, Sargodha. Efforts of Dr. Muhammad Naseem, Assistant Agriculture Chemist, Soil & Water Testing Laboratory, Bahawalpur for arranging these sponsors are highly appreciated.
Consequently, 2 days workshop was organized on February 17-18, 2011 at Agricultural Research Station, Bahawalpur with the collaboration of Fodder Research Institute, Sargodha. More than 100 participants from various organizations including farmers attended the workshop. The Director General Agriculture (Ext. & AR) Punjab took keen interest in the workshop and directed Agriculture extensionist of Bhakkar, Layyah, Mianwali, Bahawalnagar & Bahawalpur Districts who attended this workshop.
PROCEEDINGS OF WORKSHOP
The workshop was started with the recitation from the Holy Quran by Qari Abdul Rauf and Naat-e-Rasul-e-Maqbool by Syed Usmar Latif Bukhari, Ch. Mumtaz Ahmad Jajja, MPA was Chief Guest on Ist day of workshop.
I, Dr. Lal Hussain Akhtar, Guar Botanist and the Coordinator of the workshop welcomed the Chief Guest and all the participants of the workshop and also thanked all the collaborators, sponsors and the resource person. The importance of guar crop was highlighted and the aims and objectives of the workshop were explained as under
OBJECTIVES OF THE WORKSHOP
- To create awareness about industrial use of guar.
- To create awareness about the guar & its by-products.
- To create, increase and strengthen the interaction among all the stakeholders.
- To disseminate the production technology of guar crop.
- To create awareness about guar value in foreign exchange earnings of country.
- To provide information about international status of country in guar production and exports.
Ch. Mushtaq Ahmad, Director, Fodder Research Institute, Sargodha explained the research activities and achievements of Fodder Research Institute, Sargodha. He explained the nutritive quality on various fodder crops including guar and highlighted its future thrusts. Improvement of new varieties of berseem, sorghum, millet and particularly new grass varieties RG-I and its role in water saving reducing lean period of October and November. He explained that instead of dual purpose, separate varieties for fodder and grain will be developed in future varietal development programme. He also focused on development of varieties of guar for seed production which can fit in guar-gram-guar cropping system. He also told that production of Pakistan and India is 70% and 20% but share in world trade of Pakistan is only 5%.
Ch. Mumtaz Ahmad Jajja, MPA, Bahawalpur graced the occasion as Chief Guest on 17.02.2011. He congratulated organizer of workshop for such a good effort. This workshop has provided lot of new information.
Dr. Moazzam Jamil. Principal, University College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, the Islamia University Bahawalpur chaired the first technical session while the second session was chaired by Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Cheema, Director Agriculture (Research), Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahawalpur. Third technical session on 18.2.2011 was chaired by Director, FRI, Sargodha and Chief Guest was Dr. Rana Muhammad Iqbal, Professor of Agronomy, University College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur.
Dr. Mubarak Ali, Chief Executive, Punjab Agricultural Research Board, Lahore nominated Hafiz Mujeeb-ur-Rehman (Research Officer Planning) to attend the workshop. He submitted workshop report to him. He showed keep interest in guar. Hafiz Mujeeb also appreciated the arrangements of the workshop and suggested that these type of workshops should be arranged at higher levels at Lahore and in Thal area involving the international researchers.
All three technical sessions were reserved for resource person. Mr. Muhammad Aamir Naeem, Chief Executive Officer, Anabia Gum & Chemicals, Karachi (the Resource Person) delivered his detailed lectures on various aspects of guar production, value addition and export on both the days. He told the house about role of guar in country’s foreign exchange earning.
The Resource person also added that he had 22 years experience in guar value addition but this workshop was the Ist workshop on guar in Pakistan in his life. He tried his best to organize seminar/workshop on guar before this but he could not do so due to the lack of interest of farmers, Agriculture Department and the government. He offered his services for any kind of workshop at any place in Pakistan.
USES OF GUAR AND GUAR PRODUCTS
- Guar Food Gum: Guar gums find wide uses in many of the most common aspects of our lives. Many foods utilize guar as a special additive to improve handling, smoothness, shelf life and other characteristics. Pet food also is improved by the use of guar gum in its formulation. Guar gum is also used as stabilizer and binding agents in food industries.
- Food Processing: Many foods utilize guar as a special additive to improve handling, smoothness, shelf life and other characteristics. Pet feed improved by the use of guar gum in its formulation
- Bakery Industry: It is used in bakery industry, in bread, pastry, cakes, and cookies. On dry mixing prior to making bread it helps to retain moisture and the weight of bread. It keeps the bread smooth pliable and fresh for longer time and imparts milky white bleached appearance to bread.
- Drug Industry: Guar gum, drug and other ingredients are mixed and compressed into tablets. During dissolution studies, guar gum hydrates and forms a thick gel layer on the tablet surface.
- Health: Guar gum decreases the cholesterol and triglyceride levels but guar gum or other water-soluble, fermentable fibers increased the odd for colorectal cancer in a study of rats.
- Dressing and sauces: Improves the stability and appearance of salad barbecue sauces, relishes, ketchups and others (especially highly acidic emulsions)
- Industrial uses: Guar Gum is used as a thickener and emulsifier in commercial food processing. It is also used in paper manufacturing, textiles, printing, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Guar is an all-natural ingredient, unlike other common thickeners such as modified food starch and cellulose gum and has been shown to provide important health benefits
- Explosive: Guar gum is used in the explosive industry because of their ability to efficiently thicken the nitrate salt solution which is basic component of slurry explosive formulations. The gums are readily cross-linked to from stable water-resistant gels
- Paper Industry: Guar gum is used as a wet-end additive. It gives denser surface to the paper used for printing. It is also useful in foresheet formation, Mullen bursting strength, fold strength, tensile strength, measure of the force required, to pull a fiber from the surface of sheet, machine speed that all parameters are increased and porosity of the paper is decrease
- Mining: Guar gum is used in mining potash, gold, copper and platinum group metals as a flocculent and as a depressant. Reliance industries manufacturers a range of modified guar gum products tailor-made for the mining industry
- Oil, Gas & Well drilling: Guar gum and guar gum derivates are used in the fracturing of oil, gas and water wells. The guar gum is used to carry a river of sand and pumped into the ground at high pressure. This fractures the ground and then fills the fractures with sand, thereby making the ground more permeable and thereby increasing the recovery of oil, gas, or water in the existing well
- Cosmetics: Guar is used in ointments, lotions, hair shampoos, hair conditioners ,thickening agent, lubricating agent, suspending agent, detergent compatible thickener, protective colloid, film forming agent, use in tooth paste, shaving cream etc.
- Textile: Guar gum and guar gum derivates are used in to major textile applications as a printing thickener and as a binder in the sizing of yarns, particularly for denim sizing. In the textile printing industry, guar gum is used as a printing thickener to keep the dyestuff from spreading on the fabric (add photo of rotary printing machine).
- Fish Farming: Guar gum is used as a binder in the fish feed pellets. The binder keeps the pellets from disintegrating quickly when placed in water and greatly reduce the consumption of fish feed in the pond.
- Miscellaneous uses: Guar Gum powder is also widely used in other products such as photography, water treatment, fire fighting, incense stick, mosquito mat, soups, snacks, puddings, noodles, jam, ceramics, synthetic resin, carpet painting, wall Paper, water based paints, battery electrolytes, printing inks, polishes
REMARKS OF RESEARCHERS, EXTENSION AGENTS AND FARMERS
Mr. Abdul Majeed Iqbal (Guar Botanist Retired) remarked, “I worked on guar for about 15 years but I was unaware of its importance and so wider use.
Mr. Muhammad Iqbal Saleem (Guar Botanist Retired) who also worked on guar for 14 year’s and developed 2 guar varieties said that he was unaware of its export value and industrial use.
Mr. Zaffar Abbas, Deputy District Officer (Ext.), Mankera, District Bhakkar while passing the similar remarks suggested that short duration varieties of guar should be developed so that the following gram crop may be sown in time. This will help in obtaining the maximum yields from both the crops as the late crop of guar results in late sowing of gram and ultimately affects the yield of gram crop. He also suggested to organize such a workshop in Thal area before kharif season.
Representatives from guar industry, exporters, researchers, extentionist, growers, seed industry, pesticide industry, fertilizer industry, PARC, PARB, AZRI, Bhakkar, AZRI, Bahawalpur and farmer’s welfare organization participated in the workshop. In total, more than 100 people participated and attended every session.
ROLE OF MEDIA
Mr. Muhammad Rafiq Akhtar, The Director Agriculture Information Punjab, Lahore, also participated in the workshop with the media team of his Department.
The media team from Radio Pakistan Bahawalpur also gave full coverage to the proceedings of the workshop.
The Director Public Relations, Bahawalpur advertised the holding of workshop in various national news papers. The proceedings of the workshop were also printed in Daily Newspapers like Jang, Nawa-i-Waqt, Pakistan, Ausaf, etc.
PARTICIPATION FROM SINDH
Mr. Shams-ud-Din Memon, Director Agriculture Information, Sindh and two guar growers from Mirpur Khas (Sindh) were also expected to attend the workshop but due to a road accident on the way, they could not attend it.
COLLABORATION OF RESEARCH ORGANOZATIONS
The Director Agriculture (Research), Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahawalpur extended his full cooperation for the workshop in terms of Library Hall and multimedia
Dr. Rukhsana Anjum, Director, AZRI, Bahawalpur and Director, AZRI, Bhakkar also took keen interest and nominated and sent their representatives in the workshop who also actively participated.
DISTRIBUTION OF SHIELDS AND CERTIFICATES OF HONOUR
Shields were presented to the Chief Guests, DGA (R), Director FRI, Director Agriculture Information (Punjab and Sindh), Principal Agri. College IUB, Coordinator, Ex-Guar Botanists, the Resource Person, and the organizers while Certificates of Honour were distributed among all the participants of the workshop for their active participation.
RESPONSE OF THE PARTICIPANTS
The response of all the stakeholders to this workshop was marvelous. Therefore, I am of the view that if I would have involved the stakeholders from Baluchistan, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtun Khawah, the workshop would have been more fruitful but I could not do so due to shortage of time and resources.
In the light of 2 days proceedings of the workshop, the Recommendation Committee of the workshop formulated the following recommendations.
- Guar varieties for seed & fodder purpose should be developed separately instead of dual purpose varieties.
- To develop short duration varieties suitable for cropping system of guar-gram-guar
- Establishment of laboratory to test the gum quality.
- Determination of role of potash in seed production of guar.
- Development of plant production technology.
- Extension department should arrange a training programme for guar growers in Thall.
- Import of germplasm.
- Exchange of scientists/growers with KPK as yield of KPK is almost double of Punjab and
Exchange of germplasm with KPK.
SUGGESTION FOR IMPROVEMENTS IN GUAR RESEARCH
- Although, the guar is a God gifted crop of India & Pakistan but the fruitful research on guar is lacking in our country. Only one research station in whole of the country is conducting research on guar since 1984. Since then, only three varieties i.e. 2/1, BR-90 and BR-99 have been developed for fodder purpose. The varieties for seed purpose don’t exist. Therefore, these is a dire need to strengthen the research on guar to develop such varieties which are not only higher yielder in terms of seed but also process the higher gum and protein contents.
- The house also suggested that the Agriculture (Ext.) department should arrange training programmes on guar in guar growing areas before the start of guar sowing season.
- The government should ensure good and reasonable prices of guar for the growers so that its production may be increased resulting in boost of export and prosperity of the country.
- During last few years, no significant scientific manpower, funds and facilities have been provided to this station. Resultantly, no new variety could be developed after the year 2000. At the same time, no significant germplasm collections could also be made due to lack of transport facilities and POL. Major guar growing areas lie in Sargodha and D.G. Khan Divisions and in Bahawalnagar District. According to Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan 2008-09, per acre yields of KPK province are higher (1438 Kg ha-1) than all the provinces (605-671 Kg ha-1) which indicates the presence of some superior genotypes in KPK. Therefore, these is a need to conduct a survey of all guar growing areas of Pakistan to collect the superior genotypes for guar improvement.
- The introduction of superior germplam from other countries like India, Australia, USA and South Africa is another option in this respect.
- The visit/training of the local guar researchers in advanced countries will help in better research on guar.
- Visits of guar breeders from advanced countries to Pakistan.
- Vacant post of ARO may be filled at the earliest.
- Funds for new turbine may be provided to Agricultural Research Station, Bahawalpur
- Books/journals/literature on guar may be arranged because no such literature is available at the station.
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